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that the soviet union was starting to come apart. it was coming apart because it was destined to come apart. without leaders such as margaret thatcher and ronald reagan and many others, without them, it would have been a lot harder for gorbachev to move through perestroika. the impression she gave of the soviet union, we can work with this man, reagan felt the same way. it was not to defeat them. it to show them there was a better way ahead for the people of the soviet union. that helped gorbachev bring about the changes that came in 1991. >> she was certainly very fond of america and believed america should lead the world. she was not incapable of berating some american leaders. she famously said to president bush "do not go wobbly on me." >> i am not entirely sure that the accuracy of the story. it is a good story. it happened right after the invasion of kuwait by the iraqis. president bush was using his staff and taking the time to make a judgment on how best to respond. i am sure this had an effect on the president. he took his time to make up his own mind. it was that sunday evening wh
that the soviet union should be confronted, and it would be over. but when the soviet union divided from poland over the issue of solidarity and the free trade union which set itself up in defiance of the communist party in poland, the soviet union actually was on the point of collapse. it was in very bad state and, actually, the soviet union, they did some military exercises. they actually allowed the poles themselves to declare martial law because they had decided they wouldn't invade no matter what happened. this was unknown until some years. at that time reagan said, well, that's it, we're going to impose wholesale sanctions on the soviet union u and that'll bring them to heel. the big project at that time, and it's now back in the news because russia's been using it as weapons against its former satellites, they decided that a very long pipeline which was taking oil and natural gas from russia and from the southern part of the soviet union and selling it to western europe, that was vulnerable. that is, the soviets needed the revenue, they had a currency which was collapsing. they had the h
and of course caviar. he was thrilled with john denton county are are brought it back as a gift for the soviet union. churchill that small portions. when traveling he had his meal served on his tummy time, not on the clock. churchill that connects. whatever they please with the weather of wartime. there's another photo showing him in a three-piece suit, sitting on a rock by the side of the road. he picnicked with roosevelt at height dark on the banks of the right with his generals and in the north african desert with friends. he established his own picnicked rituals, and do theatrically sick and old joe's controversies that could only be recited as picked acts. much has been said about churchill alcohol, some of it true, most not, some exaggerated. i go into detail about his drinking habit. roosevelt had been told churchill was a chart, a charge one or two of his critics repeated. churchill did consume more alcohol than we are used today, but not a great deal of the standards of his contemporary and did not affect him or his work. >> and now, logan beirne examines george washington thoughts on
-contra issue and then the funding of the mujahedin in afghanistan when the soviet union was there, which at that time included osama bin laden. after president reagan was out of office, i was wondering did lady thatcher ever have any public comments about those two particular blemishes on her good friend's president reagan's record? i will get off the line for your answer. guest: i will have to take a pass on a detail. i do not want to make up an answer. i do not know if she made any comments or in generally comments. in general, she cannot not have been more unwavering in her support of president reagan. it was not just the foreign- policy support. famously, they both worked to speak harsh truths about the unsustainability of the soviet union, something that coincided with the implosion of the soviet union under its own contradiction. some conservatives will tell you it was almost sort of like moses parting the red sea. they tear it all down. i don't think it was quite that. but clearly the truth telling to the soviet union was not a relevant and gave enormous hope to dissidents working
cover the former soviet union and russia. i could go on at great length about how boris yeltsin undermined democracy and became a hero democracy. lech walnsa in many ways was not the. working bloke many made him not to be. gorbachev was a visionary who came to power. he saw he needed to change the country. he used his powers to do that. he withdrew from afghanistan. he called for nuclear abolition. he worked with ronald reagan. he understood you need political solutions, not military solutions. when the soviet troops were ready to come out of the barracks so the berlin wall would not come down, he told them to stay in the barracks, the empire is going. we cannot be a country that will be one of glasnost and perestroika if we live the way we have. it is the 20th anniversary of the soviet union, the end of the soviet union. many people in russia blame him for the economic conditions in which they live. they blame him for the end of the country that many felt was the cradle to grave welfare state instead of a totalitarian system. i have great respect for him. you can also see peopl
felt national security in the midst of a cold war with the soviet union would be best served in the far east by a strong japan. japan was being groomed as the counter balance to the communist threat in the soviet union. the cold threat created a void that would be the starting point of japan's economic miracle. >> this occurred within the context of the cold war. see after world war ii, the entire american society and its economy focused on the need of the cold war. so we organized our research, our developments, our production in relationship to military needs. to stop the expansion of the soviet union. and this meant then that we were diverting our resources to the production of military goods. and this of course opened the way for japan to enter and to penetrate the consumer goods market. >> when north korea crossed the 38 parallel and invaded south korea, the american led response pumped millions of the dollars into japan buying materials used to fight the war. korea was the key to japan's recovery. >> the cold war lived to certai
of a cold war with the soviet union would be best served in the far east by a strong japan. japan was being groomed as the counter balance to the communist threat in the soviet union. the cold threat created a void that would be the starting point of japan's economic miracle. >> this occurred within the context of the cold war. see after world war ii, the entire american society and its economy focused on the need of the cold war. so we organized our research, our developments, our production in relationship to military needs. to stop the expansion of the soviet union. and this meant then that we were diverting our resources to the production of military goods. and this of course opened the way for japan to enter and to penetrate the consumer goods market. >> when north korea crossed the 38 parallel and invaded south korea, the american led response pumped millions of the dollars into japan buying materials used to fight the war. korea was the key to japan's recovery. >> the cold war lived to certain wars in asian involving the united states. the korean war, the vietnam war. and these two
of the soviet union the number of worshippers have been multiplying. the burning of this straw hut is part of the religious tradition that's been kept alive. the purpose is to burn away old clothes placed in the hut. many buddhists still remember the depression in the soviet era. this priest witnessed it. there was once a time when they were visited by russia's rulers. after the revolution order the destruction. >> translator: everybody knows that temples were destroyed and ruined. now we experience the consequence of that period. >> reporter: once the soviet union collapsed they could resume propagating their region. one young priest has just returned from a temple in india. today there's an active effort to solidify the temple as a religious center. >> translator: india is an important destination for us to learn from our great teacher >> reporter: religious activities can be seen at the grass roots level. one example is the buddhist organization. in are what is becoming a new trend is center now longer license temples. the head wants to make this a casual place where people can chant su
reagan and thatcher which bringing down the soviet union when they did no such thing. the soviet union collapsed from within. to believe that the soviet union would be thriving today were it not for reagan and thatcher is to believe that communism is a good idea, that it works. in fact, imperialistic dictatorial communism collapsed of its own horrible weight. it simply could not survive in a modern world where freedom is necessary in every economy as is by the way some socialism as margaret thatcher well understood. it is not as if no one knew that the soviet union was going to collapse. well, it's actually as if only one person knew. senator daniel patrick moynihan predicted in 1979 it would collapse. the horribly run economy couldn't possibly provide for the people of the many different countries who were thrown together against their will under the thinly stretched banner of the imperialistic soviet union. as mentioned, the other false credit, margaret thatcher gets, is for killing socialism and burying it as george will said. what do you call a socialist that gets rid of bad social
'll say he'll call the soviet union an evil empire and everyone in the left will attack him saying it's not helpful. it's going to cause trouble. his thesis would be on the contrary this kind of confrontation is good because it projects strength and we must project strength and that's all they listen to it. it seems to be when i hear that cary would have done this kind of thing his thesis would be we don't want to confront that's going to be counter productive, and but you're suggesting that confrontation, in fact, is the way to deal with these kinds of issues. is that fair. >> when we say confrontation. we're not talking military confrontation here. but was there a, you know, hiker as there have been, abducted in iran, the state department has no hesitant sei to come out and make a major issue of these cases. it seems like when christians are involved, there is they shy away. and another example of this it actually is found in both republican and democratic administrations on very key issues. bush on iran and but in 2010, there was the last church in afghanistan was shut down by the
: this was the time that the soviet union collapsed. and people look at reagan. they look at thatcher. they look at pope john paul 2nd. as part of what brought soviet union down and obviously gorbachev. how do you see that and the role of reagan and thatcher together in that? >> what brought the soviet union down was an accumulation of things that had gone on for a number of decades. >> they're own economy. >> it came to a point in the 80s. the contribution of reagan and thatcher was to define the issue in terms that the american public could understand rather than as a confrontation between-- between ideologies and she sanctioned reagan's hand, gave him an assured spokesman on the nato side. but she was not a spokesman for reagan. she was a spokesman for a british position that was parallel to ours. and it was ultimately it was certainly always clear that if reagan deviated from her conception of the proper way of conducting the cold war, we would hear strenuous objections as we did after-- for example. >> rose: how close was the relationship between reagan and thatcher? >> i think on the level
's devastating war on the soviet union. gas suits for children. the torn jackets of prisoners. letters and children suits from concentration camps. it shows life-and-death on both sides of the battle lines. >> our focus remains the war years from 1941 to 1945. in russia, it is referred to as the great patriarchal war. in germany, it is referred to as the war of destruction against the soviet union, and there is a lot of new research into it. it is on the basis of those new insights that the museum is being redesigned, a museum that does not just me tell the past the stands as a warning for future generations. >> a lot of germans always thought that they had one of the best education systems in the world, but over a decade ago, an international report sent shock waves through the nation revealing well below average results for schools here. >> education is a topic for the states, and seeing as there are 16 of them, there are also 16 different ways of dealing with it. >> after years of wrangling, it looks like germany has come full circle with a nationwide study. this time, it points out
reminded of a line that i was told back in the soviet union in the summer of 1973 when i had gotten close to a soviet college student and we had a free exchange of ideas, never put down his country at all, and despite that, he was ordered not to talk to me anymore after we became good friends, because that's what happens in a country where the government becomes too powerful -- can't even choose your friends anymore. one of the things he pointed out. at one point, we were sitting alone visiting and he said, you know -- and he tugged on my shirt and he said we don't have material this good for our individual citizens. we wish we did. but we recognize you have so much more and better things for your citizens in the united states than we do here in the soviet union. he said, but you got to understand that here in the soviet union, since we were formed in 1918, we have had two major wars fought on our own soil that have kept this country just in turmoil. and we have had to spend most of our resources not on such nice clothes or good things for individuals, but in defending our country. and he
i took 1 hours 99 the former soviet union. these are blown up to a gigantic images. they lose resolution. i do not mind that, because my images are about the images, but they're also about the idea, which is why there is text all over the entire surface. >> marie in moved into the mansion on powell street just five years ago. its galleries are housed in one of the very rare single family residences around union square. for the 100th anniversary of the mansion, meridian hosted a series of special events, including a world premiere reading by lawrence ferlinghetti. >> the birth of an american corporate fascism, the next to last free states radio, the next-to-last independent newspaper raising hell, the next-to-last independent bookstore with a mind of its own, the next to last leftie looking for obama nirvana. [laughter] the first day of the wall street occupation set forth upon this continent a new revolutionary nation. [applause] >> in addition to its own programming as -- of artist talks, meridian has been a downtown host for san francisco states well-known port trees center.
and in 1999, the berlin wall came down and the soviet union was dismantled. but domestically she was a much more divisive figure. and it doesn't mat fehr you're looking at things like the unions and the mining industry or even to social issues like for example, the fact that during her tenure as prime minister, they were the wost race riots in britain. and she encouraged a very aggressive form of policing, which we knew as stop and search. which people here describe as stop and frisk. and that provoked some of the worst social unrest in britain. she regarded nelson mandala, for example, as a terrorist. and for a long period of her tenure, she was actually relatively at ease with the idea of apartheid. so i think that the, that history's view of her will be far more generous when it looks at her overseas. than it, when it considers what she did domestically. >> martin, as well, when you talk about the relationship with ronald reagan, she had his back on very controversial issues, like the deployment of those intermediate range missiles. and at the time, if we remember, pierre trudeau from th
war to china and the soviet union. than to britain. it seems remarble today. the mind set of the focused on britain as our main rival. this was all over three years later with the marshall plan in 1947. that's another story to be told in my next book. country of the reason the collapse in 1967 and '67 is rapid and violent as it was is because britain was rapidly running out of dollars. and the u.s. treasury was managing that process. if you look at the debate behind the scene and the british government early 1947 when burma, greece, palestinian were collapses violent i. it was about collars. we can't afford it anymore. we have to make the pound convertible july of 1947. only way we can make that commitment is if we start holding on to the dollars. we have to let the empire go. it was part of harry dexter white's agenda. let me say a few words about the main character. they are fascinated. british reviewers of the book told them different as, quote unquote chalk and cheese bourbon and afternoon tea. that one i like in particular. these were two men who a grudging admiration
and lamentable left, right divide that when reagan as president and he will call the soviet union an evil empire and are going on the left will attack it and say that's not helpful, that will cause trouble. at his thesis would be that on the contrary, this kind of confrontation is good because it projects strength and we must project strength and that's all they listen to. i mean, this seems to be, when i hear that john kerry would've done this kind of thinking his thesis will be we don't want to confront, it's going to be counterproductive, but you're suggesting that a confrontation in fact is the way to do with these kinds of issues. is that there? >> when we say competition let's be clear, we're not saying military confrontation. but if there was, of docket in iran, the state department has no hesitancy, intimate a major issue of these cases. but it seems like when christians are involved, there is, they shot away. another example of this, and it actually is found in both administrations on some very key issues. bush on iraq, and but in 2010 there was the last church in afghanistan were shut
guard against a possible surprise attack from the soviet union? what resources do we have? and so what eisenhower did was he brought some of the best minds, president of mit and caltech and former state department employees and so on and so forth in order to give him recommendations on how to proceed. and in doing that, an ad hoc committee, they do not have a political stake. they're not republicans and democrats. rather they all have the best interest of the nation. and he can accurately make his own decisions, but having these civilian communities he was able to get by in from a lot of people and have some humility that he did not know everything in the age for technology. a lot of these deport sierra and various other organizations and committees and groups. a lot of them came from world war ii where the united states utilized some of the bigger engineering schools for, you know, the manhattan project, the lavatory. and so it is in that work of people who had experience even though not an elected official capacity. so in his national security adviser was very well-connected and was
of the corollary, the soviet union, when somebody would go over there and have a photo op, that is served to prop up the regime. and my understanding is that prisoners in the gulags would suffer when that happened, when someone would speak out heroically, as reagan did a couple of times, their situation would improve. so it seems to me that rodman was used, but i guess another question, just because i'm interested in our own administration, our own government's role, what did not have known he was going over there? what did not have at least had to give some tacit approval to this? getting up there? i was just stunned that this could even occur. >> you have to have a visa. i don't know. i don't know how he went, what he went through china or some other third country. i really don't have any insight. >> can you make something of? >> it happened after the book was written, eric, so we haven't done her research on dennis rodman. >> if the north koreans that they could use dennis rodman has become it backfired. this is the regime, -- dennis rodman is not the guy who is going to represent the west. bu
surprise attack from the soviet union? what resources do we have where we don't have to tax the american people so heavily? what eisenhower did was he to use some of the best monies in president of m.i.t. and caltech and former state department employees and so on and so forth in order to give him recommendations as to how to proceed and in doing that it's an ad hoc community. they don't have a political state. they are not republicans and democrats informing the presidency but they have the best interest of the nation. he also moleh had made his own decision by having the civilian ad hoc communities. he was able to get buy-ins from a lot of people didn't have some some humility that he didn't know everything in the age where technology was changing so rapidly. a lot of these people work together on various other organizations and committees and groups. a lot of them came from world war ii where the united states utilized some of the bigger engineering schools for the manhattan project and the laboratory so it's a network of people who had experience serving the government even though it
of the soviet union? >> well, i think it was -- i think it was very significant. partly because she stood by president reagan and i always felt what he did, for example, with respect to what was called star war, the strategic defense initiative, was a very important element in persuading the soviets that they could not keep up with modern american military capabilities, that that was partly what forced them ultimately to end the cold war, if you will. but she also -- i think there was respect between she and gorbachev, the kind of respect that developed eventually between reagan and gorbachev. they were... willing -- reagan and thatcher were willing to take advantage of the situation and -- and knew how to engage with the gorbachev ultimately. they were tough on the one hand, as ronald reagan clearly was when he went to berl and i know said, mr. gorbachev, tear down this wall. on the other hand, they were willing to deal with him -- trust but verify. >> on days like this, we try to celebrate people, we don't try to tear them apart. we will leave that the federal next day. >> sure. >> i am
a kindred spirit in president ronald reagan, sharing her harder line toward the soviet union in the climactic final years of the cold war. yet when thatcher met with incoming soviet leader mikhail gorbachev in late 1984 she famously declared that "we can do business with him." five years later she was in power when the berlin wall came down. in 1990 when iraq invaded kuwait thatcher backed a tough response urging president george h.w. bush not to go wobbly on confronting saddam hussein. but back home, thatcher's own grip on power was wobbling after 11 years in office her public support flagged amid inflation and renewed recession. and the conservative party voted her out. >> after 11-and-a-half wonderful years. >> warner: even after her fall from power thatcher often drew large crowds at campaign events. nearly upstaging her successor john major at a conservative party conference in 1992. that same year she was named a baroness. for many of the '90s she made lucrative lecture tours. margaret thatcher's withdrawal from public eye began in 2002 when a series of small strokes pr
to go back to the old example of the soviet union, of the third basket of helsinki which was regarded as just sort of keep the human rights ngos happy. but have sort of major effects of providing, criticism. so these issues should be seen as, it ties in with other foreign policy agendas. tom, now at georgetown university, has written very adequately on foreign policy and religious freedom. >> i think we have time for one more question. perhaps in the front row here, we have a hand. we have a microphone, microphone approaching, approaching. and we'll have just a moment left. >> hi eric and all of you. i was the president of the first north korea freedom coalition. i just wanted to mention something about the state department, kind of a little history. just, we have an infiltration of islamist sympathizers. and i'm actually concerned about that. [inaudible] just something broke yesterday. john kerry's son-in-law, which didn't come out in the vetting process, his son-in-law is an iranian. and iranian americans with very close world is in iran. and that is, it's a breakdown of the vetting
an outliar compared to what we saw with the former soviet union. >> guest: i think that observation is quite accurate, i think. when we look at the soviet union, when we look at the regimes in the arab spring, all of which have had leaders in power longer than the former recently deceased north korean leader. they all collapsed and north korea continues to survive. so that alone is evidence that nobody within the system is empowered to overthrow it. and i think it's also just because, as you know well, the very strict controls that exist in this country, a society in which -- to use the term ensconced would be an understatement. this is about the strongest state in terms of the control it has on the society and on political freedoms, and even thought. even the way people think. so, for that rope, it's very difficult to imagine that there could be a group within this society that could speak out, that could challenge views at a party congress, these sorts of things just don't happen in north korea. so, that is why it has lasted for this long, i think because in spite of a lot of its problems,
of the communist places but not cuba? >> and soviet union which was the mother ship . it showed what the americans were capable of and so we have tried the same policy. castro has been around hundred years and nothing is changing and certainly our policy is not changing them. im all for it. reck rick john hon in >> any influence from the west would be a positive. wayne is crazy. there is a difference between cuba and north korea which is threatening us with nuclear war. we should not travel or trade with countries that are threatening us. cuba is not doing that. >> the point is, johnathon if you are doing it covertly you want to get in the country. you have to have pretense. you don't say we love them because they shoot and kill us. you want a mission in there and people in the country so you know what is going on and find out the information. >> that is call would the cia and surveillance. >> eric: i got a deal. kimberly, we'll give them jay 0and beyonce and they give us cigarings. >> i am sure for that. now the real reason and peeling it back why you want to get to cub a. i like wayne's idea of
of the soviet union. thought it was wonderfully poetic, but reagan went to london and talked about -- >> you know, it's interesting, mika, that reagan's detractors in the '80s called him a war mongr now, today, as they look back, realizing how terribly wrong they were. we'll try to give credit for gorbachev for ending the cold war. that is a laughable proposition. he was forced into the corner and forced into the corner by ronald reagan, margaret thatcher, by pope john paul ii and by a few other tough, conservative leaders that made sure that the soviet union would rest on the ash heap of history. margaret thatcher was part of that coalition standing shoulder to shoulder with ronald reagan and pope john paul ii. and they took down the soviet union. >> it's amazing when you think about that. we're talking about hillary clinton potentially leading this country some day. but this woman defied all odds in so many ways. we're just past the top of the hour. breaking news to report. nbc confirming that former british prime minister margaret thatcher has died at the age of 87. she was the first woma
. of the 15 countries that formed the former soviet union, there are civil wars in some of them, as in georgia, as in the nagorno-karabakh in armenia -- azerbaijan. we must not let our defenses go down too far. there'll be new threats, and we must know that whatever your prime minister or president decides to do, the requisite weaponry is there to do it; otherwise we shall once again be in retreat and find it difficult to recover the full liberties and democracy that we have known. c-span: what's the difference in the way you're treated when you come to the united states and the way you are treated in your own country these days? >> guest: you do know now i've been out of power for nearly three years. i think i'm treated the same way in both. i'm almost hailed as a heroine, as people look back and see what we did -- how purposeful and exciting it was. a fantastic number of young people come to buy the book. they didn't always like what i did, but they knew that it had purpose and direction. i found it as i went on in a tour of the united kingdom. of course there are some people who are against
of the soviet union. she was among the first western leaders to recognize mikhail gorbachev as an ally at the kremlin. in 1989, she saw another emerging threat, a changing climate. >> what we are now doing to the world by degrading the land surfaces, by polluting the waters, and by adding greenhouse gases to the air at an unprecedented rate, all of this is new in the experience of the earth. it is mankind and his activities which are changing the environment of our planet and damaging in dangerous ways. >> well ahead of her time with those words with news of her death, paul johnson of the "wall street journal" wrote not since katherine the great has there been a woman of such consequence. eugene robinson called her a towering and polarizing figure. the former prime minister's funeral will be held next week, her spokesman said she specifically did not want a state funeral or flyover, because she thought it was waste of taxpayer money. margaret thatcher was 87 years old. >>> now to business. investors remain hesitant ahead of what is expected to be a modest first quarter earning session.
, the leader of the old soviet union who used the nickname that stuck. >> she was a politician for whom the term devicive is a compliment. loathe by the workers, crushed in the industries. she shut down or sold up. loved by the new strep neural class, her capitalism created. as britain's first and only woman prime minister in office from 1979 to '90, her very name became an ideology. thatcherrism. a british version of reagan onlyics, her soul mate relationship with ronald reagan is what won the cold war. and on her death, the children of thatcherrism, including britain's current prime minister, paid tribute. margaret thatcher didn't just lead our country, she saved our country. >> in her later years, she suffered from a series of strokes and dementia and rarely seen in public. in her prime, she has been described as a force of nature. not only facing down the unions, but facing down the arkansas arkansas general tin argentinans. her bullying manner became the stuff. >> but by the most important measure of politics, there was no denying her success. she won three straight elections. a
. it was formally part of the soviet union. i had the chance to speak with the prime minister. he was in tokyo and told us why he is trading in his lats for euros. >> thank you for your time. good morning. >> nice to see you. >> that's a question we're hearing quite often. it's a euro zone crisis so why join or why join now. it's important to understand the nature of the crisis because it's not euro as a currency crisis. what they are seeing in the euro zone right now is financial and euro zone countries which were not following sound economical and fiscal policies. that's how they run into trouble. >> reporter: the people of latvia have run into trouble. the country was hit hard triggered by the financial crisis of lehman brothers. latvia achieved the highest growth rate in the eu last year. he's been prime minister since the sharp contraction. i asked him how he achieved an economic turn around in such a short time. >> i think one of the reasons was that we did bulk of our adjustment during the crisis. what some countries in southern europe are doing are trying to kind of delay that adjustme
that rivals the decline in life expectancy for russian men after the disintegration of the soviet union. there's no single explanation for why this is happening. prescription drug overdose has spiked, smoking, obesity, poverty. for too many women, the dream of upward mobility, the american dream remains elusive. that is not the way it is supposed to be. i think of these extraordinary sacrifices that my mother made to give me not only life, but opportunity along with love and inspiration. and i am very proud of my own daughter. i look at all these young women that i am privileged to work with or no through chelsea -- know through chelsea. it is hard to imagine turning he clock back on them. but on places in america, the clock is turning back. but we have work to do. reeling vitality and strengthening leadership will take the energy and talent of all our people, women and men alike. we need to learn from the women of the world that have blazed a new path and develop solutions on everything from economic development to education to environmental protection. if america is going to lead, we need to
in the soviet union, both on and off the battlefield. >> and fans celebrated into the night on wednesday at the their team upset real madrid in the fourth leg of the champion the semifinals. they owed their victory to the spectacular performance of one man, the striker, who scored all four of the goals. nextwo sides clashed again week in madrid. u.s. defense secretary chuck hagel said on thursday it was likely that the syrian government had used chemical weapons in its fight against the rebels. >> the u.s. intelligence community assesses with some degree of varying confidence that the syrian regime has used chemical weapons on a small scale in syria, specifically the chemical agent sarin. >> it could increase the pressure on washington to take action. that outlined any use of chemical weapons as a red line. this week, the casualties include a moscow, which was destroyed. it is one of the world's oldest and eight unesco world heritage site. europe, meanwhile, worried about possibly hundreds of radicalized europeans join the ranks of syrian rebels. fiers that extremists could join groups l
many communist rulers, kim il song did not come to power in a revolution. the soviet union was instrumental in bringing him to power. moscow and beijing were key allies of p'yongyang. the u.s. and united nations lent support to seoul. six decades have passed since the war that hardened divisions on the korean peninsula. the autocratic kim died in 1994, and power seamlessly transitioned to the next generation, his son, kim jong ill. like father, like son. north korea stepped up its isolation on the world stage. defense spending shot through the roof as millions of ordinary koreans went hungry. many died of starvation. kim jong il wanted to hold onto power at all costs. he was behind north korea's nuclear program and the country's first nuclear tests. the armed forces unconditionally backed him, in part likely because his family was awarded a key military positions. his youngest sister eventually became a general. her husband is a top government adviser and a powerful politician. kim jong il died in 2011, but the next family member was already waiting in the wings -- his olde
like eastern europe or the soviet union in the days of stalin. that's what it feels like. >> stephen: do they hate us? do they really hate us, like the people? >> no, the people-- it's very difficult to communicate with people directly, but i found absolutely no hostility. >> stephen: do you speak korean? >> i don't speak korean. >> stephen: that could be one the reasons why. ( laughter ). >> that wasn't the only reason. it was difficult to communicate with them because you don't get time alone with them. every time you go somewhere you're with a minder. when we're out on the street, if you want to go to find a public bathroom, the minder will walk you, stand outside the door, wait for you until you're done and take you back. >> stephen: that's both polite and creepy at the same time. >> a little bit of both. >> stephen: four months ago you were kidnapped in syria? >> in december. >> stephen: how did you get away and who kidnapped you? >> we were exwoopped by a group called the shabia, a progovernment militia. >> stephen: pro-assad. >> pro-assad. and they were organized. they
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